Abstract A high-performance capillary electrophoresis system with a polysiloxane-coated capillary and polymeric buffer additives was investigated for the analysis of DNA restriction fragments and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Mobility data and Ferguson plots of the DNA fragments at different polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) concentrations indicated that effective molecular sieving was obtained consistent with existing data of conventional gel electrophoresis and with recent HPCE data. The precision and peak efficiency were excellent and the system was applied to the analysis of specific co-amplified DNA sequences (HIV-1 and HLA-DQ-alpha). After PCR, ultrafiltration was used in the sample preparation step to desalt the sample and to remove superfluous PCR reaction products. Electrokinetic injection was used for sample introduction into the capillary. The addition of ethidium bromide to the buffer resulted in longer migration times of DNA fragments and better peak resolution. During HPCE, an artifact associated with dilute DNA solutions leading to the appearance of extra peaks in the electropherogram was found.