Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered human parvovirus. HBoV was detected in respiratory samples by PCR, but its aetiologic role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory infectious diseases is still unclear. Results In this report, we describe an atopic child affected by pneumonia, with a past history of wheezing. A panel of bacteria and respiratory viruses were searched in the nasopharyngeal swab, only human bocavirus was detected by PCR. Conclusions Detection of HboV, as the only microbial agent, in samples from children with wheezing and acute respiratory diseases supports the assumption that this emerging virus could have an aetiologic role in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases.