Abstract A comparison of metabolically labeled proteins from continuous in vitro and in vivo derived Plasmodium falciparum revealed both similarities and differences. Metabolic labeling of synchronized cultures showed that the uptake of label increased as the parasites matured from the ring to the schizont stage in both cultures. Also, in both continuous in vitro and in vivo derived cultures, prominent high-molecular-weight proteins were synthesized during the late developmental stages. However, the continuous in vitro cultured parasites incorporated twice as much of the label at each stage as did the in vivo derived parasites. Immunoprecipitation with serum samples from vaccinated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra monkeys revealed major differences involving protein antigens that migrated in the molecular weight regions of b ( M r = 152,000), c ( M r = 143,000), j ( M r = 82,700), and n ( M r = 57,400). These antigens were more readily detected in the continuous in vitro cultured schizonts than in the in vivo derived schizonts.