Abstract The most sensitive optical method of interferometry was exploited for determination of changes in the refractive index following the adsorption of biological molecules onto the solid surface. Instead of having two waveguiding arms (the main and the reference) in traditional Mach-Zhender interferometer, two ortogonal TM and TE modes propagating through the SiO 2–Si 3N 4–SiO 2 waveguide structure were employed in planar polarization interferometer (PPI). Multiperiodic PPI response was, therefore, formed due to the phase shift between TM and TE modes. A matrix simulation procedure was developed in order to investigate the influence of both the refractive index and molecular layer thickness on the PPI response. Nonspecifical binding of fibrinogen to silicon nitride surface was studied as a model object for PPI testing. The results obtained are in good agreement with the known information about fibrinogen adsorption on the different surfaces. An attempt to introduce the concept of ‘surface molecular concentration and molecular polariziability’ instead of ‘molecular layer thickness and refractivity’ was undertaken.