Abstract This research addressed the relationship of social processes and technological and organizational context factors during implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT). Survey data were collected from 369 respondents with direct AMT implementation experience who were drawn from a broad cross-section of organizations in the Great Lakes region. Results indicated that social and human resource (HR) processes, technology, and organization context (prior AMT experience and support for technical updating) were mutually interdependent, with HR processes having a direct relationship with the effectiveness of AMT implementation outcomes. Updating support ameliorated the negative effects of HR inhibiting processes on the effectiveness of the eventual operation of implemented AMT systems. Implications for AMT implementation practices and future research directions are discussed.