Purpose To evaluate the atherosclerotic evolution in coronary bifurcations located proximally and distally to a bioresorbable scaffold. Methods Thirty bifurcations located >5 mm beyond the scaffolded segment, being investigated with serial intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH) examinations, at baseline and 2-years, in patients enrolled in the ABSORB cohort B1 study were included in this analysis. In each bifurcation, the frames portraying the proximal rim, in-bifurcation, and distal rim of the ostium of the side branch were analyzed. The geometric parameters and plaque types were evaluated at baseline and 2-years follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in the geometrical parameters such as lumen, vessel and plaque areas as well as in the composition of the atheroma between baseline and 2-years follow-up. When we separately examined the bifurcations located proximally and distally to the scaffolded segment, no changes were found at the distal bifurcations, while at the proximal bifurcations there was a statistical significant decrease in the plaque burden (36.67 ± 13.33% at baseline vs. 35.06 ± 13.20% at 2 years follow-up, p = 0.04). Ten necrotic core rich plaques were found at baseline, of which 2 regressed to either fibrotic plaque or to intimal thickening at 2 years follow-up. The other 8 did not change. Disease progression was noted in 3 plaques (1 adaptive intimal thickening, 1 fibrotic and 1 fibrocalcific plaque) that evolved to necrotic rich plaques. Conclusions Plaque regression was noted at the bifurcations located proximally to the bioresorbable scaffold but not at these located distally. Additional studies are required to confirm this finding and examine further the effect of drug elution on atherosclerotic evolution.