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A fluidized layer of granular material used for the separation of particulate impurities in drinking water treatment

Institute of Hydrology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Publication Date
  • Ta Engineering (General). Civil Engineering (General)


This paper deals with the application of a fluidized layer of granular material (FLGM) for the direct separation of destabilized impurities during drinking water treatment. Further, it investigates the effect of operation parameters (fluidized layer grain size, technological arrangement, velocity gradient, retention time, dosage of destabilisation reagent and temperature) on the aggregation and separation efficiency of the layer. The tests were carried out in a pilot plant scale. Aluminium sulphate was used as the destabilisation reagent. The highest separation efficiencies were achieved, when the particles entered the fluidized layer immediately after the dosing of the destabilisation reagent, when they had the lowest degree of aggregation. The separation efficiency (φ) also increased with increasing velocity gradient and the maximal value was reached at the velocity gradient of about 250 s-1. The most efficient separation of aluminium was achieved at 5 °C, but the effect of temperature on the efficiency of organic matter separation (φTOC) was not very significant. The maximal efficiency of separation on the layer grains reached the values φAl = 0.81 at the optimal dosage DAl = 1.55 mg L-1 and φTOC = 0.31 at the optimal dosage DAl = 2.36 mg L-1. The indisputable advantage of using FLGM for the separation of impurities is that they are intercepted on the layer grains in a form of solid, water-free shell (or coat) with the density of 2450 kg m-3, and there is no need to deal with the sludge dewatering.

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