Seagrass meadows are renowned worldwide as rich and productive nursery areas for juveniles of economically important fish and crustacean species. Australian scientists have rightly been leaders in research into seagrass as habitat for fisheries species. Australia has a large area of seagrass in all states, and a large number of species (see Chapter 1). With a relatively narrow shelf around most of Australia’s coastline, and an absence of major upwelling currents, much of the value of Australian fisheries comes from species harvested in shallow coastal waters. This chapter examines the evidence for links between seagrass and fisheries resources.