Abstract Catalytic graphitization was accomplished by the addition of Cobalt, Nickel, and Iron to the original polymers of a urethane foam and naphthalenediol, respectively. Structural changes were observed using the scanning electron microscope, as well as changes in interplanar spacings ( d 002)and apparent crystallite sizes ( L c ) by X-ray diffraction. Electron probe and electron diffraction were also used in determining structures present. At 1000°C, partial graphitization occurred and what is believed to be the transition phase from amorphous carbon to graphite was detected. In most specimens, after heat treatment for 0.5 hr at 1500°C, d 002 was 3.36 Å and L c was as high as 220 Å.