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Bacterial Genetics: Research Report for 1956

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  • Biology


a35 Protoglas&3. In botatical usage a psotoplast is the living content of a I=s?J., Q5ng within the kd.gid cell wall. Attention was focnssed on ba3tsrM. protop,e?s+~ in 195;"7 f;g YeZbn?Ll" 0 dC$!bf!?tFa?ti.on th?t tlx? pQtr?pb St9 OP f'i ~?.~.3.~~~~ yyf? pj??*W~ : i' " could be released whan the out&r wall gas dissolved by Iysozp:~, 'Ehz pa~~to-, plasts appeared a8 sphetical bodies which could be maintained only fn a hyper- tonic medfum, and promptly lysed when transferred to water, These two criteria, sph;erlical shape and osmotic fragility, are the easiest to dis- tinguish bacterial protoplasts from intact oelfs, 3Cn gram-positive (but not gram-nagat%vej ticteria, moreover, the cell wall is readily demonstrated by simple stainingprocedums, Tb& protoplasts of 2% megaterium haare already been the subject of several important studfes-4rected on one hand to the misafng functions of the ceU wall, on the other to the us3 af protoplasts as easily disrupted and extractod bfosynthetic tits. Them3 results feogo Spiegelman ati Lzmdman 1995) stzbm- lated the hopa of comparable experiments with E. COPZT. a) for the usa of afreadyuel&-studied enzymatic mutants, phage, etc., in physiologioaf, and bj to test for the uptake of DNA (as genetic fragments) by the waXM.oss protoplasts, Early In 1956, several investigators became interested in this problem (Repaske and collaborators at Indiana; 23.x&w at Rockefeller Institute) and succeeded in finding special conditions ruder which lysozymo would dfssoXv? the existing #am of 8, co15 ceIl.Xs, Shultinsously, in thfs laboratoEJrt, penicillin was fouzzd to inhibkt wall. formation in growing cells, It bad 'Long been known that peniciI.Un lysed growing cells; by analogy with Nxibull*s xwnibts it was found that in a growth medium containing H/3 SUCFOSB and l-l/f0 Big%', this %ysis was averted, and the cells~transfo~ed instead 2nto sphericalt, osmotically frag%I.e ~p~otoplast~~ (Lederbarg, X9$6), Theo o

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