Confirmatory multidimensional scaling (CMDS) is presented as a spatial technique for structural modeling based on ordinal assumptions, and as an alternative to metric techniques such as LISREL. The article links both techniques to the multitrait-multimethod matrix and presents a system for deriving measures of symmetric construct relationships, measurement error, and goodness of fit. Examples show that CMDS and LISREL often give comparable results, but that LISREL is sensitive to the magnitude of correlations whereas CMDS is sensitive only to their order. The trade-offs involved in assumptions, results, and interpretations with these methods are highlighted in the conclusion. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.