Abstract Axoplasmic transport is involved in the neurotrophic regulation of muscle metabolism. Nevertheless, the mechanism of this transsynaptic regulation is still unknown. In the present work, the effect of axoplasmic transport on muscle autolytic activity was studied. Colchicine, a drug known to interfere with axoplasmic transport, was injected under the epineurium of the hypoglossal nerve and the autolytic activity of the corresponding geniohyoid muscle was measured at different times after drug treatment. A blockade of axoplasmic transport by colchicine produced a significant and reversible increase in muscle autolytic activity. This result suggests that neurogenic molecules play an important role in the regulation of muscle catabolism.