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l-Dopa-Induced Dyskinesia—Clinical Presentation, Genetics, and Treatment

Elsevier Science & Technology
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-381328-2.00002-x
  • Dyskinesia
  • Levodopa
  • Parkinson'S Disease
  • Biology
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Philosophy


Abstract Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) has been recognized since the introduction of levodopa for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) and continues to be one of the most clinically challenging factors in long-term management of patients with PD. Most patients develop LID within 10 years of PD onset and the cause has been attributed to various factors including disease demographics, pharmacological, and possibly genetic causes. The clinical pattern of LID varies and shows intra and inter-patient variability and has been classified based upon phenomenology and relation to timing of levodopa. The potential armamentarium to address and manage LID has significantly increased in the last decade. This chapter addresses the current understanding of various clinical aspects and available therapeutics for LID.

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