Transcription factor Foxm1 plays a critical role during embryonic development and its expression is repressed during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells at the early stage, correlated with downregulation of expression of pluripotency markers. To study whether Foxm1 participates in the maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, we knock down Foxm1 expression in P19 cells and identify that Oct4 are regulated directly by Foxm1. Knockdown of Foxm1 also results in spontaneous differentiation of P19 cells to mesodermal derivatives, such as muscle and adipose tissues. Maintaining Foxm1 expression prevents the downregulation of pluripotency-related transcription factors such as Oct4 and Nanog during P19 cell differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of FOXM1 alone in RA-differentiated P19 cells (4 days) or human newborn fibroblasts restarts the expression of pluripotent genes Oct4, Nanog and Sox2. Together, our results suggest a critical involvement of Foxm1 in maintenance of stem cell pluripotency.