Publisher Summary Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a term commonly used to describe renal epithelial tumors with malignant potential. It is becoming apparent that RCC is a heterogeneous disease from its very inception and is best considered a family of neoplasms rather than a single entity. The classification of RCC into subtypes has become of great interest because of the association with prognosis. It can be classified into clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, collecting duct, and unclassified subtypes. The differences among the various types of RCC are related to the oncogenic molecular events and the epithelial site targeted by these events, leading to distinct morphologic, antigenic, and immunophynotypic patterns. These differences are reflected in the clinical course of RCC and the variable prognosis in the affected individuals. A significant improvement in the overall 5-year survival can be attained by early detection and advances in the surgical management of the disease. A delay in diagnosis may result from the ability of the retroperitoneal space occupying lesion to become large before causing local symptoms. Moreover, the manifestations of RCC are protean and may give rise to a constellation of nonspecific symptoms. So, the development of diagnostic noninvasive approaches for early detection of RCC is imperative. Multislice computed tomography is the most recent advance in CT technology that uses a multiple-row detector array instead of the single-row detector array used in helical CT. The main advantages of MDCT are scanning time, increased volume coverage, and spatial and temporal resolution.