We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular thyroid hormone concentrations, were used simultaneously. High concentrations in PCBs and DDT were detected in muscles, supporting the idea that the Mediterranean fauna could be more polluted than the Atlantic fauna. The high abundance of DDE indicates a progressive degradation of remnant DDT load and the absence of new inputs in this area. Aquaculture sea bass shows a significant higher amount of pollutants on fresh weight basis (especially PCBs) in their muscles compared to the wild sea bass. Those differences may be related mainly to the contaminations of diet. Thyroid parameters vary between wild and aquaculture sea bass, wild sea bass were characterized by higher follicle diameters, epithelial cell heights and muscular T4 concentrations. A significant relationship between persistent organic pollutants (muscular PCBs and DDT concentration) and the different thyroid parameters (diameters of follicles, epithelial cell heights and muscular T4 levels) could be observed, which support the hypothesis that these compounds have an adverse impact on thyroid morphometry and function.