Brain calcinosis syndrome (BCS) usually is defined as bilateral calcium accumulation in the brain parenchyma, primarily in the basal ganglia. More than 50 reported clinical conditions have been associated with BCS. We reviewed clinical, radiological, and genetic features of heredofamilial BCS accompanying all conditions associated with calcium accumulation in the brain reported in English between 1962 and 2003 in MEDLINE. The location, extent, and degree of calcification in the brain show diversity not only among the various disorders but also among patients sharing the same condition. The pathogenesis of BCS is uncertain. More complicated mechanisms may be involved when brain calcinosis is present but calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism abnormalities are absent. We review conditions associated with heredofamilial BCS in which brain calcinosis is nearly uniformly present because such information may be important to the clinician pursuing an investigative strategy.