Abstract Experimental work has shown that technetium-99m ( 99mTc) pyrophosphate accumulates in recently infarcted myocardium and can be detected by external imaging techniques. Twenty-two 99mTc polyphosphate myocardial studies were performed in 17 patients (in 3 after cardiac surgery) 3 to 20 days after myocardial infarction. Seventeen myocardial studies were performed in 17 control patients (in 6 after cardiac surgery). Twenty millicuries of 99mTc polyphosphate was injected intravenously 60 to 120 minutes prior to gamma camera imaging in several views. Myocardial images were processed by the Gamma-11 computer system using standardized background subtraction and contrast enhancement. Results of 16 myocardial studies performed 4 to 20 days after transmural myocardial infarction in 12 patients were positive in 13 instances and questionable in 1. The location of the myocardial infarction by imaging corresponded to location by standard electrocardiographic criteria in 8 of the 10 patients with positive findings. In five patients with nontransmural myocardial infarction, results of myocardial imaging were positive in two, questionable in one and normal in one. In one patient with questionable findings results were normal when imaging was repeated 16 days after nontransmural myocardial infarction. Results of 17 control myocardial imaging studies were normal in 16 and questionable in 1. Therefore, 99mTc polyphosphate myocardial imaging appears promising in the detection and location of transmural myocardial infarction. Its accuracy in detecting nontransmural myocardial infarction may be increased with greater experience and development of sophisticated digital analysis techniques. The method may prove useful in clinical situations such as cardiac surgery in which standard diagnostic aids are difficult to interpret.