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The implant test. Six tests for carcinogenicity.

British Journal of Cancer
Nature Publishing Group
Publication Date
  • Research Article
  • Chemistry


I. F. H. PURCHASE AL. APPENDIX VII THE IMPLANT TEST E. LONGSTAFF THE INDUCTION of sarcomas following s.c. implantation of solid materials has been widely studied. Bischoff and Bryson (1964) have published a comprehensive review of the experimental work in this field, and have stressed the importance for sarcoma production of the size and shape of the implant, as well as the type of tissue developing around it. When films of a sufficient size (about 2 cm2) were implanted, a high incidence of sarcomas were induced irrespective of the chemical composition of the test compound. If the same material was implanted in the form of perforated films, or in discs about 05 cm in diameter, fewer tumours were induced, while the powdered form of the material was completely inert. Furthermore, it was shown that the shape of the implant was of major importance in determining tomour induction. When silicone rubber "'buttons", dumb-bell-shaped in cross section, were implanted s.c. the number of tumours induced was much greater than when plain films of the same material were employed. In the study of the s.c. implantation of discs of petroleum wax in mice, Shubik et al. (1962) used 5 waxes, ranging in melting point from 55*3 to 85-3°C. The tumour incidence around these implants was low with the 2 lower-melting-point waxes and much higher with the others. At necropsy, the low-melting-point waxes were found to have softened and assumed the shape of the body at that site, while the others had remained rigid. No tumours resulted when a wax that, in disc form, produced a high yield of tumours, was implanted in powdered form. Shulman et al. (1963) implanted strips of polyethylene mesh and plain polyethylene film s.c. into rats, and found a higher incidence of animals with tumours in the latter group. Foreign-body tumorigenesis has been studied by s.c. implantation of Millipore filters (Karp et al., 1973). There was an inverse relationship between pore size and tumour incidence which led to the hypo- thesis that imp

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