The treatment of hip osteoarthritis with total hip arthroplasty has continuously evolved since it was first introduced in the sixties. The problem of aseptic loosening of the cemented prostheses, mainly in young active patients, has stimulated two different types of research: on one side the improvement of cementing techniques and on the other side the development of cementless osteoinegrable implants. We discuss the problems of these cementless hip prostheses. Recently published anatomic and biomechanic studies have led to the development of personalized custom femoral stems for each patient. The conception technique and first clinical results are described.