Abstract A controlled, randomized, prospective study was performed evaluating the need for perioperative blood salvage for primary total hip arthroplasty patients who had donated autologous blood before surgery. One hundred fifty-three patients able to donate at least 2 units of autologous blood were divided into four groups. In group 1 (35 patients), intraoperative and postoperative Cell-Saver (Haemonetics, Braintree, MA) was employed. In group 2 (40 patients), a postoperative Solcotrans (Smith & Nephew Richards, Memphis, TN) reinfusion protocol was followed. In group 3 (40 patients), a closed-suction Hemovac drain (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) was placed. In group 4, (38 patients), no drain was used. Decisions for transfusion were based on clinical and laboratory parameters and made in conjunction with medical consultation. All autologous blood was routinely reinfused. There was no statistically significant difference in transfusion requirements or wound complications among the four groups. Hemoglobin and hematocrit changes between groups also were not statistically significant, but a power test suggested insufficient patient numbers for absolute reliability of this observation. Only five patients (3.3%) in this study received homologous blood. Four of these patients were in the Solcotrans group and one was in the Cell-Saver group. Two reoperations were performed: one for hematoma (Solcotrans group) and one for a sewn-in drain. It is concluded that expensive perioperative blood salvage techniques are usually not needed in patients who have a primary total hip arthroplasty without cement and who have donated 2 units of blood before operation.