We studied the feasibility of using the surface coil probe technique for the noninvasive in vivo study of ocular tumors by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The characteristic organophosphate metabolites of suspected uveal melanomas before proton beam irradiation were determined qualitatively by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo using a three-turn surface coil. Spectra of choroidal hemangioma, osteoma, and metastasis were also obtained in vivo and compared with those of uveal melanomas. Analysis of spectra performed at 1.5 T showed significant peaks of phosphomonoesters, inorganic phosphate, phosphodiesters, phosphocreatine, and adenosine 5′-triphosphates. The unusually high concentration of phosphodiesters may be considered as a marker for uveal melanomas and other choroidal tumors. By analyzing the ratio of phosphocreatine to phosphodiesters spectral area values, we interpreted qualitatively spectra of intraocular tumors to differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions. Nevertheless, the main limitation of interpreting the spectra was their contamination by signals from surrounding tissues.