Publisher Summary This chapter discusses how designers can characterize the transducer and ADC, how to determine amplifier and design specifications through the use of error budgets, and how to complete circuit design. The equations developed in this chapter are not nearly as important as the design philosophy. The systems engineers select the transducer and A/D converter (ADC), and their selection criterion is foreordained by the application requirements. The analog interface amplifier (AIA) design engineer must accept the selected transducer and ADC, and it is the AIA designer's job to make these parts play together with adequate accuracy. The AIA design often includes the design of peripheral circuits, like transducer excitation circuits, and references. The design procedure starts with an analysis of the transducer and ADC. The analysis is followed by a characterization of the transducer and reference. At this point, enough information is available to make an error budget and select candidate op amps. The op amp is selected in the next step in the procedure, and the circuit design follows. The output voltage span of the transducer and corresponding input voltage span of the ADC are coupled as two pairs of data points that form the equation of a straight line. The data point pairs are substituted into simultaneous equations, and the equations are solved to determine the slope and intercept of a straight line (an op amp solution). The op amp circuit configuration is selected based on the sign of the slope and the intercept. Finally, the passive components used in the op amp circuit are calculated with the aid of the op amp circuit design equations. The final circuit must be tested for conformance to the system specifications, but the prudent engineer tests beyond these specifications to determine the AIA's true limits.