Abstract The effects of opioid peptides on the osmotic release of neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasotocin (AVT) and mesotocin (MT), were determined in 2-day-old chicks. Experiment 1 examined the effect of a variety of doses of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, on chicks administered isotonic or hypertonic solution. Plasma osmolality in chicks administered hypertonic solution was significantly higher than that in groups administered isotonic solution. None of the doses of naloxone affected plasma osmolality in response to isotonic and hypertonic solution. Plasma levels of AVT increased in hypertonic solution and this response was further enhanced by naloxone injection as the doses increased. The hypertonic solution alone did not affect plasma levels of MT, but additional treatment with naloxone slightly increased plasma levels of MT. Experiment 2 examined the effect of DAMGO ([d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol]-enkepha lin), a specific μ receptor agonist. Relatively high plasma osmolality caused by hypertonic solution was not affected by additional treatment with DAMGO. Plasma levels of AVT in response to hypertonic solution and to additional treatment with naloxone were reduced by higher doses of DAMGO. Experiment 3 examined the effect of naloxone on chicks administered different concentrations of NaCl. Administration of hypertonic solution resulted in an increase in plasma osmolality and plasma levels of AVT. Naloxone administration enhanced the increase in plasma AVT levels in response to hypertonic solution. Experiment 4 examined the effect of naloxone on different kinds of hypertonic solution, 0.15 M NaCl, 1.5 M NaCl, 2.55 M urea, and 1.95 M sucrose. The increases in plasma osmolality resulting from the administration of the urea and sucrose solutions were the same as those in the chicks injected with 1.5 M NaCl. In sucrose-treated chicks, plasma levels of AVT increased in chicks administered naloxone but not in chicks injected with normal saline. In contrast, no significant changes in plasma levels of AVT were observed in urea treatment with or without naloxone. In Experiments 3 and 4, plasma levels of MT after administration of hypertonic solutions did not change. However, naloxone administration enhanced plasma levels of MT in osmotically stimulated chicks. The results of the present study suggest that opioid peptides attenuate the increase in plasma AVT and MT in hypertonic states.