Ten children, aged 7 months to 15 years, with peptic esophageal stricture, were treated surgically. In four of the children, the stricture had occurred after esophageal anastomosis. Peptic stricture was diagnosed by esophagography, pH monitoring, manometry, and esophagoscopy. Barrett's esophagus was found in two children. Nine children underwent transabdominal Nissen fundoplication initially. In the first child of this series, a tight anastomotic stricture had been excised 2 weeks before fundoplication. Seven children became complaint-free within 2 or 3 months after fundoplication without any dilatation, and two children with anastomotic stricture improved after 1 or 2 postoperative dilatations. The condition of one boy, with a 6-year history of tight stricture, did not improve with repeat Nissen and subsequent dilatations. Histological examination showed proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the submucosa. A conservative surgical approach is effective for the management of peptic esophageal stricture in children, and direct surgical intervention for stricture should be attempted only in cases of stricture resistant to antireflux surgery with a long history of reflux.