The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the deep fibular nerve and the dorsalis pedis artery to provide useful anatomical knowledge for safe surgical approaches in plastic surgery. The dissection of 30 cadaver lower limbs was undertaken to describe the relationship of the deep fibular nerve to the dorsalis pedis artery in the anterior tarsal tunnel and on the dorsum of the foot. The anterior tarsal tunnel is a flattened space between the inferior extensor retinaculum and the fascia overlying the talus and navicular. The deep fibular nerve and its branches pass longitudinally through this fibro-osseous tunnel, deep to the tendons of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus. Four distinct relationships of the deep fibular nerve to the dorsalis pedis artery were determined. The dorsalis pedis neurovascular island flap contains both the dorsalis pedis artery and the deep fibular nerve. Because the design of a neurovascular free flap requires detailed knowledge of the nerve and vascular supply, the data presented here are intended to help surgeons during surgical approaches to the foot and ankle.