Abstract Alicyclobacillus spp. are mainly Gram-positive, rod-shaped, nonpathogenic, aerobic, spore-forming bacteria, owning ω-alicyclic fatty acids as the main membrane constituent. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is the most concerning species within Alicyclobacillus genus. Because of their high heat and chemical resistances, these bacteria can withstand fruit washing and juice thermal processing. Then, survivors are able grow and spoil acidic foods due to the acidothermophilic behavior of these bacteria. The spoilage caused by Alicyclobacillus is characterized by the presence of smoky and medicinal off-flavors associated with production of 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 2,6-dibromophenol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol. In this article, the characteristics, main species, spoilage potential, thermal and chemical resistances as well as isolation methods and control strategies will be presented.