A versatile compound to replace petroleum-based compound for generating fuel and fine chemicals, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), was derived from biomass in this study. Catalytic hot compressed water (HCW) and ionic liquid processeswere investigated for HMF production from glucose.Anatase titanium dioxide (a-TiO2) and ytterbium (III) triflate (Yb(OTf)3) was employed as catalyst for HCW and ionic liquid, respectively. 1-butyl 3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was used as solvent in ionic liquid process. Complete glucose conversion was achieved at 100 % by using ionic liquid process while the highest glucose conversion for HCW process wasgained at 87.7 %. Yield for HMF was up to 56.5 % and 8.7 % by using ionic liquid and HCW, respectively. The process parameters for both processes were optimized by using STATISTICA 7. Interaction among the process variables and its effects such as reaction temperature, time and catalyst loading were investigated using central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) approach. It was revealed temperature has significant effect for converting glucose to HMF in both processes.The study found that by applying optimum condition, 2.7 % HMF yield was gained at 146oC within 5 min with 1078 mg of a-TiO2 for HCW process. On contrary, ionic liquid process gave 52.8 % HMF yield at 106oC with 39.7 mg of Yb(OTf3)in 165 min. This study proved that CCD and RSM approach was applicable for HCW and ionic liquid processes in order to optimize the process condition.