Traditionally river systems have been a source of economic prosperity, but also the cause of devastating floods. In the Netherlands centuries ago the first flood defence systems were constructed. Since the 1950s Dutch flood defence policy has been based on fixed standards for maximum allowable flood frequencies. With the growing population and increasing economic capital behind the dikes, the risk of economic damage and casualties has increased. During the past few years the insight has therefore grown that flood policy should be based on flood risk reduction. Flood risks can be reduced by reducing the flood frequency, but also by reducing the potential economic damage and number of casualties. In several national and international conferences scientists and politicians have reflected on the topic and there appears to be a widespread common notion on the necessity of flood risk policies. The discussion on how to implement the new thinking on risk management is still going on. During the NCRdays a workshop has been devoted to the practical and scientific questions and dilemmas in implementing flood risk strategies.