Abstract Background Adverse radiation effects are a known complication after the use of SRS for AVMs, although it is difficult to predict which patients will manifest with these side effects. Treatment of swelling due to ARE is usually medical, but refractory cases may require surgical decompression. Case Description This report presents a case of a patient who experienced AREs after SRS (edema, headaches, and nausea) that failed to respond to steroid treatment but was successfully treated with HBO. The treatment characteristics of this and of 5 other cases of radiation injury after SRS for AVM managed with HBO therapy are reviewed, and the pathophysiology is discussed. Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen therapy provides a therapeutic option to treat AREs following SRS of cerebral AVMs.