Abstract Infection of mice with a temperature-sensitive ( ts) mutant of Chandipura virus (CV) ts472 CV, induced a slower disease than the respective parental virus and white matter lesions characterized by perivascular mononuclear infiltrates accompanied by primary demyelination. The pattern of these lesions was very similar to that in EAE, a prototypic autoimmune disease and in Theiler's virus infection in which an immunopathologic mechanism of myelin injury is strongly suggested. Results obtained in nude mice supported the possible immunopathological nature of myelin injury in ts472 CV infection. No inflammatory response was elicited in either grey or white matter. However, whereas grey matter presented extensive necrosis, no alterations were present in white matter. Such data suggest that whereas grey matter lesions are produced by direct viral cytolytic activity, white matter pathology is probably dependent on the host immune response for its development. The finding of additional models of virus-induced demyelination with a possible immunopathologic mechanism of myelin injury is significant as it suggests that this type of virus-induced myelin degeneration is not restricted to a single virus like Theiler's, but it may represent a more general mechanism of virus-induced demyelination.