The Mexican and Central American species associated with Philonthus furvus Nordmann, 1837 are reviewed. Nine species are treated, two of them, P. oenotrus and P. melampus, both from Mexico, are described as new. Philonthus flohri Sharp, 1876 is removed from synonymy with P. furvus. All species are described and illustrated, and a key is added to aid in their identification. All available records from Mexico and Central America, and biological data for the species are provided. Lectotypes are designated for P.flohri Sharp, 1876; P. sallaei Sharp, 1885; P. fissilis Sharp, 1885; P. nigerrimus Erichson, 1840.