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Appendix JJ1

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APPENDIX J J. ANNUAL REPORT OF MAJOR JOHN M. WILSON, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1877. UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE, Portland, Oreg., Jane 30, 1877. GENERAL : I have the honor to transmit herewith my annual reports for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1877, upon the works of river-improvement under my charge. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JOHN M. WILSON, Major of Engineers. Brig. Gen. A. A. HUMPHREYS, Chief of Engineers, U. S. A. JJ I. IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOWER WILLAMETTE AND COLUMBIA RIVERS FROM PORTLAND, OREGON, TO THE SEA. The difficulties to be overcome in opening the channel for deep-draught vessels through the various bars from Portland to the sea were fully set forth in my annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and the subject of the improvement of this stretch of navigation has been carefully considered by the Board of Engineers of the Pacific coast. The report of the Board having been submitted to the Chief of Engineers, and approved by him, it is not deemed necessary to again describe the various bars in the Lower Willamette and. Columbia Rivers. OPERATIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR. By the act of Congress approved August 14, 1876, an appropriation of $20,000 was made for this work, which it was determined to expend in excavating channels through the bars at Swan Island, Post-Office Bar, mouth of the Willamette, and Saint Helen's. The extraordinary freshet of 1876, which, reached a height of 28.2 feet above low-water on Jane 24, 1876, commenced to abate on that day, and on August 11, 1876, the river being still 10 feet above low-water, the work of excavation was commenced with the United States dredge at the bar at the MOUTH OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER. Careful surveys made at this locality show that the fall in the Willamette from the head of Willamette Slough to the mouth of the river, a

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