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Comparative assessement of intimal hyperplasia development after 14 days in two different experimental settings : tissue culture versus ex vivo continuous perfusion of human saphenous vein

Authors
Publisher
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Publication Date
Keywords
  • Ex Vivo Perfusion
  • Vein Culture
  • Saphenous Vein
  • Intimal Hyperplasia
  • Histomorphometry
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Fibrinolytic Factor
  • Pai-1
  • Flow
Disciplines
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Abstract

Résumé de l'article : L'hyperplasie intimale est un processus de remodelage vasculaire ubiquitaire après une lésion, pouvant menacer la perméabilité de tout type de reconstruction vasculaire. Les mécanismes physiopathologiques impliqués dans le développement de l'hyperplasie intimale ne sont que partiellement élucidés. Il est par conséquent nécessaire d'effectuer des recherches complémentaires afin d'en améliorer la compréhension et ainsi permettre l'élaboration de nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques médicamenteuses. La culture de veines en milieu statique permet le développement de l'hyperplasie intimale. Ce modèle maintient la viabilité tissulaire, comme décrit précédemment dans d'autres études, mais empêche l'analyse des paramètres hémodynamiques. La mise au point d'un modèle de perfusion in vitro permettant la perfusion de segments vasculaires représente une approche expérimentale intégrant les différents facteurs hémodynamiques. Le système de perfusion (Ex Vivo Vein Support System) que nous avons élaboré conserve l'intégrité pariétale ainsi que les propriétés vasomotrices des veines pour une durée de 14 jours. Cette étude démontre que les deux modèles permettent le développement de l'hyperplasie intimale. Toutefois, les propriétés vasomotrices ainsi que l'influence des paramètres hémodynamiques ne peuvent être analysées que par l'utilisation du système de perfusion. Ce dernier a permis de perfuser des vaisseaux humains sans contamination bactérienne tout en maintenant l'intégrité cellulaire. Ce modèle de perfusion se rapproche plus des conditions hémodynamiques rencontrées in vivo que le modèle statique. Abstract : Background. Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a vascular remodeling process which often leads to failure of arterial bypass or hemodialysis access. Experimental and clinical work have provided insight in IH development; however, further studies under precise con-trolled conditions are required to improve therapeutic strategies to inhibit IH development. Ex vivo perfusion of human vessel segments under standardized hemodynamic conditions may provide an adequate experimental approach for this purpose. Therefore, chronically perfused venous segments were studied and compared to traditional static culture procedures with regard to functional and histomorphologic characteristics as well as gene expression. Materials and methods. Static vein culture allowing high tissue viability was performed as previously described. Ex vivo vein support system (EVVSS) was performed using a vein support system consisting of an incubator with a perfusion chamber and a pump. EVVSS allows vessel perfusion under continuous flow while maintaining controlled hemodynamic conditions. Each human saphenous vein was divided in two parts, one cultured in a Pyrex dish and the other part perfused in EVVSS for 14 days. Testing of vasomotion, histomorphometry, expression of CD 31, Factor VIII, MIB 1, α-actin, and PAI-1 were determined before and after 14 days of either experimental conditions. Results, Human venous segments cultured under traditional or perfused conditions exhibited similar IH after 14 days as shown by histomorphometry. Smooth-muscle cell ( SMC) was preserved after chronic perfusion. Although integrity of both endothelial and smooth-muscle cells appears to be maintained in both culture conditions as confirmed by CD31, factor VIII and α-actin expression, a few smooth-muscle cells in the media stained positive for factor VIII. Cell-proliferation marker MIB-1 was also detected in the two settings and PAI-1 mRNA expression and activity increased significantly after 14 days of culture and perfusion. Conclusion. This study demonstrates the feasibility to chronically perfuse human vessels under sterile conditions with preservation of cellular integrity and vascular contractility. To gain insights into the mechanisms leading to IH, it will now be possible to study vascular remodeling not only under static conditions but also in hemodynamic environment mimicking as closely as possible the flow conditions encountered in reconstructive vascular surgery.

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