Background The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran. Methods A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the positive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus. Results Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III). Conclusion The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.