Abstract Primary anti-trinitrophenyl antibody production was investigated from spleen cells of mice immunized with trinitrophenylated-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, using the plaque-forming cell method and ELISA. Cells taken 5 days after antigen injection do not produce IgE, but do produce IgM and IgG1 anti-trinitrophenyl antibodies as demonstrated by plaque-forming cells. Substantial increase of IgM, IgG1, and IgE antibody production was seen from cells taken 7 days after immunization, followed by a rapid decline. By ELISA it was seen that cells taken 3 days after immunization already produce small amounts of anti-trinitrophenyl antibodies. Presence of antigen from the start of the cultures did not increase antibody production from cells taken 3 days after immunization, but potentiated antibody secretions from cells taken 5 days or later after immunization. This potentiation was interpreted as recruitment of antibody-forming cells from early memory B cells. The presence of IL-4 from the start of the cultures had no appreciable effect. Cell sorting with specific antibody-coated magnetic beads showed that plaque-forming cells from nonsorted cells, membrane IgE + or membrane IgE − cells secreted similar amounts of anti-trinitrophenyl IgG1 and IgE antibodies. No difference in anti-trinitrophenyl IgM, IgG1, or IgE production was found in controls; cells sorted negatively or positively for CD23. The data show that memory B cells can be demonstrated already on Day 5 after immunization, and their antigen-induced antibody secretion is IL-4 dependent.