Abstract Irrigation is one of the many directed changes that give new form to the organization of the total territory affected. In arid regions, irrigation often results in the creation of new landscapes. Irrigation creates a new form of organization — usually one that is foreign to the local landscape. In uninhabited arid regions, irrigation is a most important factor for the development of a new landscape. The paper analyses the unique role of irrigation in the reorganization of Israel's rural landscape and identifies the as-yet untapped potentials of the new landscape.