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Individual differences in satiety response to carbohydrate and fat. Predictions from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ)

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A high carbohydrate/low fat diet is recommended for reduced risk of overeating, but it is not clear whether satiety responses to carbohydrate and fat differ between individuals. The objective of this study was to determine how women with either a low or a high tendency to overeat (TFEQ-disinhibition) and with either a low or a high tendency to restrict intake (TFEQ-restraint) respond to fat and carbohydrate consumed at breakfast. Sixty-four healthy-weight women preselected for high and low TFEQ scores of restraint and disinhibition were enrolled for the study. They came to the laboratory on two separate days to consume breakfast; on one day the principle energy source was fat and on the other day carbohydrate. Satiety responses were determined by ratings of hunger and fullness for 2 h after breakfast, and intake at a mid-morning snack test. Those scoring high on the TFEQ-disinhibition scale consumed more energy at the snack test than those with low TFEQ-disinhibition, but this was only following the high carbohydrate breakfast. The TFEQ-restraint scale did not independently predict food intake or interact with the TFEQ-disinhibition related overeating. In normal-weight females the tendency to overeat may be related to insensitivity to the satiating effects of carbohydrate. Keywords: Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ); Disinhibition; Dietary restraint; Over-eating; Carbohydrate; Fat; Satiety

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