The tendency of platelets and leukocytes to lyse after their interaction with antibody and complement was studied by measuring the release of 51Cr from cells labeled with this isotope. Platelets from six patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) were 15-230 times more sensitive to antibodies and 10-32 times more sensitive to complement than normal platelets or platelets from patients with other types of thrombocytopenic or hemolytic disorders. Mixed white blood cell (WBC) preparations from patients with PNH were 3-20 times more sensitive to anti-WBC antibodies and 5-10 times more sensitive to C′ than were WBC preparations from normal subjects, but PNH lymphocytes showed normal immunologic reactivity. PNH platelets, like PNH erythrocytes, lysed more readily than normal platelets in acidified serum and in media of reduced ionic strength, but these characteristics were not demonstrable with PNH WBC's under the conditions of study. In PNH, platelets appear to comprise a single population with respect to their sensitivity to immune lysis, yet their survival time as measured with 51Cr falls within normal limits. PNH granulocytes likewise appear to consist of a single, uniformly sensitive population.