The localization of autonomous ground vehicles in dense urban environments poses a challenge. Applications in classical outdoor robotics rely on the availability of GPS systems in order to estimate the position. However, the presence of complex building structures in dense urban environments hampers a reliable localization based on GPS. Alternative approaches have to be applied In order to tackle this problem. This thesis proposes an approach which combines observations of a single perspective camera and odometry in a probabilistic framework. In particular, the localization in the space of appearance is addressed. First, a topological map of reference places in the environment is built. Each reference place is associated with a set of visual features. A feature selection is carried out in order to obtain distinctive reference places. The topological map is extended to a hybrid representation by the use of metric information from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and satellite images. The localization is solved in terms of the recognition of reference places. A particle lter implementation incorporating this and the vehicle\'s odometry is presented. The proposed system is evaluated based on multiple experiments in exemplary urban environments characterized by high building structures and a multitude of dynamic objects.