ABSTRACT Purpose Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for 21 hours causes severe renal vasoconstriction. We examined the role of endothelin (ET)-A receptor in renal hemodynamic alterations induced by UUO. Materials and Methods Hemodynamic and clearance experiments were performed in 3 groups of anesthetized dogs. In group 1, 6 sham operated dogs received intrarenal infusion of the specific ET-A receptor antagonist BQ-610 (Peninsula Laboratories, Inc., Belmont, California), followed by infusion of the nitric oxide synthase substrate L-arginine. In the 7 group 2 dogs release of 21-hour UUO was followed by intrarenal infusion of BQ-610 and L-arginine. In the 5 group 3 dogs release of 21-hour UUO was followed by L-arginine infusion. Results UUO caused marked decreases in renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1. In group 1 BQ-610 and L-arginine infusion did not alter RBF or GFR. In contrast, BQ-610 infusion in group 2 after UUO release led to a significant increase in RBF and GFR as well as additional increases after L-arginine infusion. After UUO release in group 3 L-arginine infusion alone did not change RBF or GFR. Conclusions After UUO release blockade of the ET-A receptor ameliorates renal vasoconstriction. The addition of L-arginine, which is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, superimposed on ET-A receptor blockade confers a further decrease in renal vascular resistance, suggesting that the ET and L-arginine-nitric oxide systems are involved in renal hemodynamic alterations caused by UUO.