Abstract Tribe Anthocercideae (Solanaceae) is an Australian endemic group comprising 31 species in seven genera. Recent phylogenetic work has placed the Anthocercideae sister to Nicotiana. Two chloroplast DNA regions, ndhF and trnL/F, were analyzed and the phylogeny was used to test the tribe's monophyly, discover relationships within the tribe, and make inferences on character evolution and biogeography. The relationship between Nicotiana, Symonanthus, and the rest of tribe Anthocercideae is unresolved. Anthocercis, Anthotroche, Grammosolen, and Symonanthus are found to be monophyletic, while Cyphanthera and Duboisia are not (Crenidium is monotypic). Several characters were inferred to be derived within the Anthocercideae, including unilocular stamens with semicircular slits, ebracteolate flowers, and baccate fruits. Ancient colonization occurred in southwestern Australia followed by several radiation events eastward.