Non-specific vaginitis is a commonly diagnosed condition defined in a similar manner by most authors. Although assumed to be of infective aetiology, no single organism has yet been accepted as the primary agent. This syndrome was studied in two groups of women presenting to general practitioners or attending a family planning clinic. The two groups were of similar ages and had similar markers of sexual activity. Of the 173 women studied, 90 had symptoms. Of the symptomatic women 9.5% could be categorized as having non-specific vaginitis and 36.7% as having an alternative cause for their discharge. Gardnerella vaginalis were found to be associated with anaerobes, clue cells and staphylococci more frequently than by chance.