the spread of enterobacteria producing extended-broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) is a global public health-problem. In a study carried in 2003-2005 at the Pasteur Institute in Bangui, 450 enterobacteria were identified in clinical isolates, of which 17 were ESBL (prevalence: 3.78%). The aim of this study was to update this data. from May 2018 to April 2019, a total of 941 enterobacteria were isolated and identified under identical conditions of recruitment and with the same techniques used in the previous study: phenotypic identification using Api 20E strips (bioMérieux SA, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) and antimicrobial drug susceptibility using the disk diffusion method (Bio-Rad antibiotic discs, Marnes la Coquette, France). Resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. from May 2018 to April 2019, a total of 941 enterobacteria were isolated of which 478 were ESBL, thus amounting to a prevalence of 50.80%. The genetic profiles of the bla CTX-M resistance genes exhibited the emergence of the CTX-M28 variant (CTX-M1 group) and variants of the M2 and M9 groups. There was also a notable increase, from 35 to 64%, in the ESBL with a bla SHV gene. this study documents a 13 fold increase in the prevalence of ESBL derived from clinical isolates of the bacteriology laboratory of the Institute Pasteur in Bangui, by comparing its data with that of the publication by Frank et al. 2006. Together with this increase a significant diversification of the circulating CTX-M resistance genes was noticed. Copyright: Hugues Sanke-Waïgana et al.