Abstract Rat and mouse alveolar macrophages have almost no spontaneous tumoricidal activity and are only slightly activated by muramyldipeptide (MDP). When MDP was carried by serum albumin, the activation was higher than with free MDP but only at high concentration. When MDP was bound to a neoglycoprotein (mannosylated serum albumin) — which binds to the sugar binding receptor at the macrophage cell surface and is actively endocytosed — the activation of rat or mouse alveolar macrophages is dramatically enhanced even at very low concentration of neoglycoprotein-bound MDP. Furthermore, neoglycoprotein-bound MDP injected i.v. or i.p. was found to be able to activate alveolar macrophages, the activity of which was maximal after 48 hours in mice and 72 hours in rats. Such conjugates have so potential values as new immunostimulant agents in cancer and parasite therapy.