Abstract Pulp necrosis in immature teeth subsequent to caries has a major impact on long-term tooth retention. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain pulp viability by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex and to establish an environment in which apexogenesis can occur. A complicating factor in treating immature teeth is the difficulty predicting the degree of pulpal damage. The ability of the clinician to manage the health of the remaining pulpal tissue during the procedure is paramount. Currently, the best method appears to be the ability to control pulpal hemorrhage by using sodium hypochlorite. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) currently is the optimum material for use in vital pulp therapy. Compared with the traditional material of calcium hydroxide, it has superior long-term sealing ability and stimulates a higher quality and greater amount of reparative dentin. In the medium-term clinical assessment, it has demonstrated a high success rate. Thus, MTA is a good substitute for calcium hydroxide in vital pulp procedures.