Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently causing cancer-related deaths worldwide. Previous evidence suggests that the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is an important candidate gene for influencing the risk of HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the association of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of HCC in Chinese Han population. A total of 1314 subjects, including 651 HCC patients and 663 healthy controls, were enrolled in this case-control study. Two genetic variants (c.1254C>T and c.1517G>C) in XRCC1 gene were genotyped by created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Our data indicated that the allele and genotype frequencies of these two genetic variants were statistical difference in HCC cases and healthy controls. Association analyses suggested that these two genetic variants were statistically associated with the increased risk of HCC in all genetic models (for c.1254C>T, TT versus CC: OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.61–3.28; CT versus CC: OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.05–1.67; TT/CT versus CC: OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.86; TT versus CT/CC: OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.43–2.80; T versus C: OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.25–1.73; for c.1517G>C, CC versus GG: OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.34–2.69; GC versus GG: OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.24–1.97; CC/GC versus GG: OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.31–2.03; CC versus GC/GG: OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.10–2.11; C versus G: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.23–1.70). The allele-T of c.1254C>T and allele-C of c.1517G>C genetic variants may contribute to HCC susceptibility in Chinese Han population.