The main goals of asthma therapy are to control symptoms, prevent acute attacks, and maintain lung function as close to normal as possible. Customizing the regimen to relieve the patient's symptoms and control airway inflammation is important. If asthma is not well controlled, an initial inhaled corticosteroid boost will treat the underlying heightened airway inflammation, and the addition of a long-acting β 2-adrenergic agonist or leukotriene receptor antagonist will rapidly control symptoms. Most patients do not require prolonged treatment with expensive combination or additive agents. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is a common source of symptoms. Treatments for scheduled and unscheduled exercises differ. Inhaled corticosteroids prevent frequent and severe asthma exacerbations. When patients have persistent symptoms despite a pharmacological regimen, environmental factors and nonpharmacological interventions must be considered before medication is increased. When an inhaled corticosteroid is being considered, issues of compliance, drug delivery device, and proper inhaler techniques are as important as issues of potency, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects. The new hydrofluoroalkane preparations offer more lung deposition and may be important in treating inflammation of the small airways in patients with asthma.