The interactions of aniline with soil at an industrial spill site were investigated. Sorption of aniline to the soil was observed to occur through a two-step mechanism. The first step was an ion exchange process with the protonated amine serving as an organic cation. This step was influenced by solution pH and ionic composition. The second step was covalent bonding most likely with quinone moieties and oxidation with polymerization of aniline. The extent of covalent bonding was influenced by the presence of oxygen and redox potential. The majority of aniline that was bound to the soil did not readily desorb under a variety of abiotic conditions. However, aniline was released to a significant extent in the presence of denitrifying and methanogenic microbial activity. Aniline in aqueous solution was readily biodegradable under aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Soil-bound aniline was observed not to be biodegradable. This paper provides an overview of results.