Introduction. The Arg/Arg genotype vs. Arg/Pro or Pro/ Pro at codon 72 of the p53 gene has been implicated in increasing susceptibility of the cervix to the action of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and thus altering cancer risk. However, research on this topic has been contentious. Meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis, included as part of this project, revealed that studies where departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed tended to report higher odds ratios (OR). In fact, several methodological and study design choices can contribute to such departures. The primary purpose of this study was to address potential methodological limitations and examine the role of this polymorphism in the risk of cervical neoplasia.